Canadian citizenship test facts for our new refugees; a refresher for everyone else




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Aboriginal Peoples

1. Who are the Aboriginal peoples in Canada?

  • The Aboriginal peoples were the first people to live in Canada.

2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?

  • The three main groups are the First Nations, the Inuit, and the Metis.

3. From whom are the Metis descended?

  • The Metis are descended from early French and English fur traders and First Nations women.

4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples makes up more than half of the population in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?

  • The Inuit make up more than half of the population of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working toward self-government?

  • The Aboriginal people of Canada are working toward self-government to keep their unique cultures and languages alive and to regain control over decisions that affect their lives.




Canadian History

1. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from?

  • The first European settlers in Canada came from France.

2. Why did early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?

  • The early explorers first came to Atlantic Canada to fish and trade with Aboriginal peoples.

3. What three industries helped early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?

  • Farming, fishing and shipbuilding were the basis for strong communities in the Atlantic region.

4. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?

  • The United Empire Loyalists were early settlers in the Atlantic region who left the United States during and after the American Revolution (1775-1783).

5. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. Lawrence River?

  • Settlers from France first established communities on the St. Lawrence River in the early 1600s.

6. Which trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years?

  • The fur trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years.

7. What form of transportation did Aboriginal peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?

  • The Aboriginal peoples and fur traders first used the Great Lakes as a waterway to create trading networks in North America.

8. What important trade did the Hudson Bay Company control?

  • The Hudson Bay controlled the fur trade.

9. What did the government do to make immigration to western Canada much easier?

  • In the late 1800s the government built a railway across the Prairies to the Pacific coast that made immigration to western Canada much easier.




Government

1. What does Confederation mean?

  • On July 1, 1867, the provinces we know now as Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined together in Confederation to create the new country of Canada.

2. What is the Canadian constitution?

  • Canada’s constitution is the system of laws and conventions by which our country governs itself.

3. What year was Confederation?

  • Confederation was in 1867.

4. When did the British North America Act come into effect?

  • The British North America Act came into effect in 1867.

5. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?

  • The British North America Act is important in Canadian history because it is the 1867 Act which officially created the new country of Canada by joining together the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia legal in Confederation.

6. Which four provinces first formed the Confederation?

  • Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia first formed the Confederation.

7. Which was the last province to join Canada?

  • Newfoundland and Labrador was the last province to join Canada.

8. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?

  • Canada Day is on July 1 and celebrates the anniversary of Confederation.

9. Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?

  • Sir John A. Macdonald was the first Prime Minister of Canada.

10. Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important to Canadian history?

  • The Constitution Act of 1982 allows us to change our Constitution without asking the British government for approval.




Rights and Responsibilities

1. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?

  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians.

2. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?

  • In 1982 the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became part of the Canadian Constitution.

3. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  • Fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms include the freedom of religion and the freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression.

4. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  • Legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms include the right to life, liberty and the security of the person; the right to a fair trial; and the right to protection against discrimination.

5. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?

  • Canadian citizens have the right to apply for a Canadian passport.

6. What does equality under the law mean?

  • Equality under the law means that Canadian citizens have the right to protection against discrimination, in particular discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

7. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.

  • obeying Canada’s laws,
  • voting in elections
  • expressing opinions freely while respecting the rights and freedoms of others
  • working to help others in the community
  • eliminating discrimination and injustice
  • caring for and protecting Canada’s heritage.

8.Rights Canadian citizens have.

  • the right to enter and leave Canada freely
  • mobility rights, such as the right to live and work anywhere in Canada
  • the right to apply for a Canadian passport
  • the right to be educated in either official language
  • the right to vote in federal and provincial/territorial elections
  • he right to be a candidate in federal, provincial and territorial elections.




Languages

1. What are the two official languages of Canada?

  • English and French are Canada’s two official languages.

2. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.

  • English and French have equal status regarding their use in the Parliament of Canada, in federal courts and in all federal institutions.

3. Where do most French speaking Canadians live?

  • The Province of Quebec. More than three-quarters of the Canadians who live in Quebec speak French as their first language.

4. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?

  • Quebec. Over one-third of the population in Quebec speaks both French and English, making it the province with the highest number of bilingual Canadians.

5. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?

  • New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province in Canada.

Symbols

1. What does the Canadian flag look like?

  • The Canadian flag is white with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre.

2. What song is Canada’s national anthem?

  • Canada’s national anthem is “O Canada.”

3. Where does the name “Canada” come from?

  • In the early 1500s, explorer Jacques Cartier used a First Nations word for village, “kanata,” to refer to the whole country. European mapmakers later used “Canada” as a name for all the land north of the St. Lawrence River.

4. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?

  • The beaver is an official symbol of Canada.

5. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?

  • The tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings is called the Peace Tower.




Geography

1. What is the population of Canada?

  • Canada has a population of about 36 million people.

2. What three oceans border Canada?

  • Canada is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Arctic Ocean to the north.

3. What is the capital city of Canada?

  • Ottawa, Ontario is the capital city of Canada.

4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.

  • Alberta – Edmonton
  • British Columbia – Victoria
  • Manitoba – Winnipeg
  • New Brunswick – Fredericton
  • Newfoundland and Labrador – St. John’s
  • Northwest Territories – Yellowknife
  • Nova Scotia – Halifax
  • Nunavut – Iqaluit
  • Ontario – Toronto
  • Prince Edward Island – Charlottetown
  • Quebec – Quebec City
  • Saskatchewan – Regina
  • Yukon – Whitehorse

5. In which region do more than half the people in Canada live?

  • More than half of the people of Canada live in the southern parts of Quebec and Ontario.

6. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?

  • About one-third of all Canadians live in Ontario.

7. Where are the Canadian Rockies?

  • The Canadian Rockies form the border between Alberta and British Columbia.

8. Where are the Great Lakes?

  • The Great Lakes are in Ontario along the border between Canada and the United States of America.

9. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia?

  • The Canadian Rockies are on the border between Alberta and British Columbia.

10. Where are the Parliament Buildings located?

  • The Parliament Buildings are in Canada’s capital city, Ottawa, Ontario.

11. Which country borders Canada on the south?

  • The United States of America (USA) borders Canada on the south.

12. What are the Prairie provinces?

  • Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta are called the Prairie provinces.

13. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?

  • Prince Edward Island is Canada’s smallest province in land size.

14. What is a major river in Quebec?

  • The St. Lawrence River is a major river in Quebec.

15. On what date did Nunavut become a territory?

  • Nunavut became a territory on April 1, 1999.




Federal Elections

1. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?

  • There are 338 electoral districts in Canada (as of 2015).

2. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?

  • Canadian citizen
  • at least 18 years old
  • on the list of electors.

3. How is a government formed after an election?

  • After an election, the party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power.

4. How is the Prime Minister chosen?

  • The Prime Minister is the leader of the political party with the most elected Members of Parliament.

5. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?

  • According to the Constitution, an election must be held within five years of the last election.

6. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?

  • Any Canadian citizen who is at least 18 years old can run in a federal election.

7. Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?

  • In a federal election Canadians vote for the people they want to represent them in Parliament. Each Canadian votes for a Member of Parliament for his/her electoral district.

8. What do political parties do?

  • Political parties are groups of people who share ideas about how the government should work. Members of political parties hold meetings where they discuss their ideas and opinions. They develop plans for what they would do if their candidates were elected to form the government. The plans they make are called the party platform.

9. How are Senators chosen?

  • Senators are chosen by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Governor General.




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